CategoriesBlog Womens Diseases



  • Reproduction is the process by which organisms can produce new one similar to themselves. 
  • In the human reproductive system two kinds of sex cells or gametes are involved: the male sperm, and the female ovum
  • These gamete meet in the female’s reproductive system. 
  • When sperm meets an egg this fertilized egg is called a zygote. 
  • The zygote becoming an embryo and developing into a fetus.
  • Some parent’s characteristics pass to the next generation through our genes, genes come from the male’s sperm and the female’s egg the special carriers of human traits.


  • The female reproductive system consist of internal and external structures.
  • The external structures help in sperm entry to the female body and protect the internal organs from infection.

External structure of female reproductive system include:

  • Labia majora – The labia majora also called large lips enclose and protect other external reproductive organs.
  1. During puberty, hair growth appear on the skin of the labia majora, which contain sweat and oil-secreting glands.
  • Labia minora – The labia minora known as small lips can have a variety of sizes and shapes. 
  1. They lie just inside the labia majora, and around the openings to the vagina and urethra. 
  2. The skin of this area is very delicate and become easily irritated and swollen.
  • Bartholin’s glands – These glands are located next to the vaginal opening and produce secretion. 
  • Clitoris – The labia minora join at clitoris region 
  1. This is a small and sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. 
  2. The clitoris is covered by skin fold known as the prepuce.
  3. The clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect like penis.

The internal reproductive organs include:

  • Vagina – The vagina joins the cervix to the lower part of uterus to the outside of the body. 
  1. It also is known as the birth canal.
  • Uterus – The uterus is a pear-shaped, hollow organ that is the home of a developing fetus. 
  1. The uterus is divided into two parts – the cervix and corpus.
  2. The cervix – which is the lower part of uterus opens into the vagina, 
  3. The corpus – body of the uterus. 
  4. This can easily expand to hold a developing baby. 
  5. A canal through the cervix allows sperm entry and allow menstrual blood to exit.
  • Ovaries – The ovaries are oval-shaped small glands that are located on each side of the uterus. 
  1. These ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
  • Fallopian tubes – fallopian tube attached to the upper part of the uterus and make the path for ovum to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. 
  1. Fertilization normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. 
  2. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus where implantation occur.


  • If a female and male coitus within several days of the female’s ovulation, fertilization can occur. 
  • When the male ejaculates semen, a small amount of semen is deposited into the vagina. 
  • Millions of sperm present in this small amount of semen, and they swim up from the vagina through cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube. 
  • Only one sperm allow to fertilize with egg.
  • 5 to 6 days after the sperm fertilizes with egg, the fertilized egg become multicellular blastocyst. 
  • The blastocyst grub itself into the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium
  • The estrogen hormone causes the endometrium to become thick and rich with blood. 
  • Progesterone hormone released by ovaries keeps endometrium thick so that the blastocyst can attach to the uterus and absorb nutrients this process is known as implantation.
  • In the embryonic stage, the embryonic disk is formed which develop into a baby. 
  • The outer cells form thin membranes around the baby. 
  • These cells multiply and move to become an embryo.
  • 8 weeks of fertilization, the size of embryo like raspberry, and almost all of its parts, the brain, nerves, the heart, blood, the stomach, intestines, the muscles and skin are formed.
  • During the fetal stage that lasts from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change. 
  • The fetus moves in amniotic fluid inside the amniotic sac, gets oxygen and nourishment from the mother’s blood via placenta. 
  • Through umbilical cord the inner lining of the uterus connects to the fetus. 
  • The average of pregnancy is 280 days or 9 months. 
  • During baby delivery, the head compress the cervix which relax and widen the area to get ready for the baby birth.
  • Mucus has formed a plug in the cervix, which loosens. 
  • When the mother’s water breaks amniotic fluid come out through the vagina 
  • When contractions begin, the walls of the uterus contract that stimulated by the oxytocin hormone.
  • These contractions cause the cervix dilation and begin to open. 
  • The cervix is dilated for the baby birth, baby is pushed out from the uterus, through cervix along the birth canal. 
  • The baby’s head usually comes first. The umbilical cord comes out with the baby. It is clamped and cut close to the navel after the baby is delivered.
  • The last stage of the birth process involves the delivery of the placenta afterbirth, separated from the inner lining of the uterus, contractions of the uterus push it out, along with its membranes and fluids.
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